Legal Glossary (English and Latin) - I


The Latin term "Idem" means, in a UK legal context: "the same person or thing".

Id est (i.e)

The Latin term "Id est (i.e.)" means, in a UK legal context: "that is".

Implied Terms

The seller of goods and services must give certain implied terms. For goods these are satisfactory quality, fitness for purpose, conformity with sample or description and the right to sell the goods. Such implied terms can be excluded or restricted except where the law prohibits it. It is not normally possible to reduce the statutory legal protection of consumers.

In camera

The Latin term "In camera" means, in a UK legal context: "in private".

In delicto

The Latin term "In delicto" means, in a UK legal context: "at fault".

In esse

The Latin term "In esse" means, in a UK legal context: "in existence".

In extenso

The Latin term "In extenso" means, in a UK legal context: "at full length".

In futuro

The Latin term "In futuro" means, in a UK legal context: "in the future".

In limine

The Latin term "In limine" means, in a UK legal context: "at the outset, on the threshold".

In loco parentis

The Latin term "In loco parentis" means, in a UK legal context: "in place of the parent".

In omnibus

The Latin term "In omnibus" means, in a UK legal context: "in every respect".

In pleno

The Latin term "In pleno" means, in a UK legal context: "in full".

In situ

The Latin term "In situ" means, in a UK legal context: "in its place".

In solidum

The Latin term "In solidum" means, in a UK legal context: "for the whole".

Where there are several co-obligants bound "in solidum", each is liable in full payment or performance, and the creditor may choose which of the obligants he will sue. Every person whose name appears on a bill, whether as acceptor or endorser, is liable in full payment of its contents although he may after payment do diligence against the others for relief. Those who in a joint obligation are not bound for the whole but only for their share are said to be liable "pro rata".

In terrorem

The Latin term "In terrorem" means, in a UK legal context: "as a warning or deterrent".


A company is a separate legal entity governed by the Companies Act, which conducts activities on its own behalf and is distinct from the persons who own and control it. Incorporation is the process by which the company is entered on the register at Companies Registry and thereby comes into existence as a separate legal person.

We publish all the forms required to incorporate a UK company for yourself. These forms include the Memorandum and Articles of Association, as well as notes explaining the process. For more information and to purchase these forms please visit our Company Formation section.


An agreement by one party that he will pay to another the amount of liability which may be suffered by the second party is known as Indemnity.


The Latin term "Indicia" means, in a UK legal context: "marks, signs".

Industrial Tribunal

Industrial Tribunals were introduced in 1964 and have powers to hear unfair dismissal, discrimination and other cases in relation to statutory employment rights as well as some breach of contract actions.

An industrial tribunal usually consists of three people - a lawyer (the chairman), one individual nominated by an employer association and another by the TUC or a TUC- affiliated union. Most cases must be brought within three months of the complained of event.


Insolvency means being unable to pay your debts.

For a company, this essentially means that there is a deficit in your balance sheet; your tangible assets are less than your liabilities, and your business does not generate sufficient surplus revenue to fill the gap. If you have surplus assets in your balance sheet but are making losses, you become insolvent when the losses will consume the surplus assets. Solvency is measured in the context of voluntary winding-up and similar procedures when the directors can declare that the company will be able to pay its debts as they fall due for the next twelve months.

Intellectual Propert

Intellectual Property is the term given to various forms of protection against infringement by unlawful copying, reproduction or other forms of "theft" of intangible aspects of a product, service or business.

Creativity may be protected by patents, appearance by designs and copyright, and reputation by trade or service marks.

Inter alia

The Latin term "Inter alia" means, in a UK legal context: "amongst other things".


The Latin term "Interium" means, in a UK legal context: "temporary, in the meanwhile".


The state of dying intestate i.e. without having made a valid will.

This may be because the testator failed to make a will at all; or because his will does not make any effective disposition of property (total intestacy); or because his will effectively disposes of some, but not all, of his property (partial intestacy). The distribution of the intestate estate is done according to detailed rules.

Ipsissima verba

The Latin term "Ipsissima verba" means, in a UK legal context: "the very words of a speaker".

Ipso facto

The Latin term "Ipso facto" means, in a UK legal context: "by that very fact".

Issued Shares

Under the Companies Act 2006 shares may be issued by the company to shareholders in return for cash or other value equal to or greater than its nominal value.

When shares are issued the person subscribing must pay cash or equivalent value of at least the nominal amount. Where the share is worth more than its nominal amount the excess is treated as a share premium.

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